According to others, Democritus did not believe the gods were real, but rather people witnessed extraordinary things in the air like thunder and lightning and attributed it to human-like beings. Either way, he was critical of observing animals for omens. Like Xenophanes, he seems to believe that there are gods and divinity, but our understandings are quite limited. This is similar to Heraclitus, although Heraclitus believed Homer should be beaten for being impious.
Like Empedocles, Democritus was critical of tyranny, arguing that equality is superior to tyranny. Unfortunately, like the American founding fathers, Democritus did not extend this equality to women, slaves or foreigners. He also said that women should not be permitted to argue, as it was a terrible thing.
He does not mention whether women are terrible at arguing, or that their arguments have terrible consequences for men, regardless of their quality. Epicurus, who we will study near the end of the course, explicitly invited women and slaves into his garden which served as his school and the center of Epicureanism. Democritus believed that a life of moderation and discipline results in true happiness. Just as medicine heals sickness in the body, wisdom removes desire from the mind. Attachment to worldly things and undisciplined anger brings destruction.
Democritus (Great Philosophers)
Democritus said that scratching an itch gave the same pleasure as sex, and that desire for wealth was worse than poverty, downplaying physical pleasure. While well bred animals have strong bodies, excellent people have great minds. The things necessary for life can be easily found, and it is only unnecessary things that bring us great pain and misery in life. Profiting from doing wrong is the worst of all things.
Rather than pray to the gods, improving the self will bring all the contentment one could ask for. Originally, Democritus argued, human beings were equal, living a simple life devoid of language or technology in which they had to band together against wild beasts. They slowly made discoveries by trial and error, learning to build shelter, make fire, farm crops, raise livestock, and communicate.
Democritus saw himself as an heir to this continuing project, the development of civilization. After Plato and Aristotle, we will study Epicurus and the Stoics, who borrowed much from Democritus and the atomists, including both atoms and the ideal of moderation in life. Later Pyrrhonists saw Democritus, as well as Xenophanes and Zeno, as forerunning skeptics of their own tradition. He is not Diogenes Laertius, the biographer of philosophers we have heard much from, nor is he several different Diogenes who are less famous Greek philosophers.
One source says that Diogenes went to the Oracle at Delphi, and the pythias told him to deface the currency. Diogenes believed that people were corrupted by society, and should return to a simple life. It is also true that there were, understandably, warring factions of pro-Greek separatists and pro-Persian loyalists fighting over authority of the city, and the coins may not have involved Diogenes but rather political infighting. If this is true, the story stuck to Diogenes as a metaphor after the fact. Either way, sources tell us that Diogenes moved to Athens, where he became famous for his lifestyle and amusingly cynical interactions with others.
Socrates did prefer the simple life, and despised wealth and excess.
Diogenes became the most famous and emblematic cynic. While later cynics believed that Diogenes studied with Antisthenes, this is questionable. According to the story, Diogenes heard Antisthenes in the marketplace, and offered to become his disciple. Diogenes admired Antisthenes for being the antithesis of the average Athenian, who increasingly had come to indulge in luxury and excess as Athens had become the wealthy center of the newly independent Delian League.
Diogenes is thought by some to have invented the term by use of this expression. This was also a radical rejection of tradition, as most identified with their city and saw outsiders as barbarians. None of his writings survive, but anecdotes about his life are found in the writings of others, particularly Diogenes Laertius again, a different Diogenes.
His life is quite famous. Many famous paintings from the Renaissance and in the realist style before impressionism of the late s feature Diogenes and stories of his life.
Diogenes begged for a living, sleeping in a large jar on its side in public. He meant for his life to be seen in the center of town, hoping that his example would inspire others, and bragged about his immunity to the weather, unlike someone used to comfort and fine living. Diogenes would walk barefoot in snow and roll in hot sand to toughen himself. When asked if he was being too extreme, he replied that he was the lead singer of a chorus, who must sing louder than the others to give them the right note. When asked why he begged for his food, Diogenes said it taught people. Someone in the biological sciences must have had an appreciation of Greek cynicism, as well as a decent sense of humor.
Diogenes originally owned a wooden bowl which he used to eat and drink, but smashed it after seeing a poor boy drinking from his cupped hands. He would eat in the marketplace, even though this was indecent according to Athenian custom, saying it was the only place he felt hungry. Clearly, the joke is that markets cause appetites. In one of the most famous stories, Diogenes carried a lamp in the daytime around Athens and said he was looking for an honest man, the joke of course being that one could not be found in plain sight during broad daylight. This is very similar to Socrates, who wandered Athens in search of someone who truly knew something but could find no one.
Diogenes was against complicated theory, believing that true wisdom was rather found in the practice of a simple life ruled by reason and moderation. With Parmenides, it was already mentioned that when Diogenes was approached by a Parmenidean who argued that motion is impossible, Diogenes got up and left. This is both a refutation of the Eleatic challenge and an example of putting practice over theory. Diogenes noted that dogs sleep anywhere, eat anything, and do their natural bodily functions in the open without shame.
Dogs are honest and free of human anxieties, and so Diogenes believed people should study dogs to learn how to live. Diogenes said that while dogs bite their enemies, he bites his friends, shocking them to teach them about life. Diogenes said that wealth was inferior to courage, custom inferior to nature, and passion inferior to reason. Several stories involve Diogenes being obscene, further rejecting custom and tradition to show people that they were attached to things that were meaningless. Adding to his reputation as a dog, he is said to have defecated in the theater and urinated on people who insulted him.
Diogenes walked up to him, lifted his robe, and peed on him. Another time, when the Athenians had outlawed masturbation, he stood in the marketplace masturbating, calling on all honest men to join him. This technique, like his walks with the lamp, failed to find an honest man in broad daylight. However, Lucretius , describing atomism in his De rerum natura , gives very clear and compelling empirical arguments for the original atomist theory. He observes that any material is subject to irreversible decay. Through time, even hard rocks are slowly worn down by drops of water.
Things have the tendency to get mixed up: Mix water with soil and mud will result, seldom disintegrating by itself.
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However, there are mechanisms in nature and technology to recreate "pure" materials like water, air, and metals. The conclusion is that many properties of materials must derive from something inside, that will itself never decay, something that stores for eternity the same inherent, indivisible properties. The basic question is: Why has everything in the world not yet decayed, and how can exactly some of the same materials, plants, and animals be recreated again and again?
One obvious solution to explain how indivisible properties can be conveyed in a way not easily visible to human senses, is to hypothesize the existence of "atoms". These classical "atoms" are nearer to humans' modern concept of "molecule" than to the atoms of modern science. The other central point of classical atomism is that there must be considerable open space between these "atoms": Lucretius gives reasonable arguments [ citation needed ] that the void is absolutely necessary to explain how gasses and liquids can flow and change shape, while metals can be molded without their basic material properties changing.
The atomistic void hypothesis was a response to the paradoxes of Parmenides and Zeno , the founders of metaphysical logic, who put forth difficult to answer arguments in favor of the idea that there can be no movement. They held that any movement would require a void—which is nothing—but a nothing cannot exist. The Parmenidean position was "You say there is a void; therefore the void is not nothing; therefore there is not the void".
The atomists agreed that motion required a void, but simply ignored the argument of Parmenides on the grounds that motion was an observable fact. Therefore, they asserted, there must be a void. This idea survived in a refined version as Newton's theory of absolute space , which met the logical requirements of attributing reality to not-being. Einstein's theory of relativity provided a new answer to Parmenides and Zeno, with the insight that space by itself is relative and cannot be separated from time as part of a generally curved space-time manifold.
Consequently, Newton's refinement is now considered superfluous. The knowledge of truth, according to Democritus, is difficult, since the perception through the senses is subjective. As from the same senses derive different impressions for each individual, then through the sensual impressions we cannot judge the truth. We can interpret the senses' data and grasp the truth only through the intellect, because the truth is in an abyss:. And again, many of the other animals receive impressions contrary to ours; and even to the senses of each individual, things do not always seem the same.
Which then, of these impressions are true and which are false is not obvious; for the one set is no more true than the other, but both are alike. And this is why Democritus, at any rate, says that either there is no truth or to us at least it is not evident. Furthermore, they find Xenophanes, Zeno of Elea, and Democritus to be sceptics: The "bastard" knowledge is concerned with the perception through the senses; therefore it is insufficient and subjective. The reason is that the sensual perception is due to the effluences of the atoms from the objects to the senses.
When these different shapes of atoms come to us, they stimulate our senses according to their shape, and our sensual impressions arise from those stimulations. The second sort of knowledge, the "legitimate" one, can be achieved through the intellect, in other words, all the sense data from the "bastard" must be elaborated through reasoning. In this way one can get away from the false perception of the "bastard" knowledge and grasp the truth through the inductive reasoning.
This is the procedure of thought from the parts to the whole or else from the apparent to nonapparent inductive reasoning. This is one example of why Democritus is considered to be an early scientific thinker. The process is reminiscent of that by which science gathers its conclusions:. But in the Canons Democritus says there are two kinds of knowing, one through the senses and the other through the intellect.
Of these he calls the one through the intellect 'legitimate' attesting its trustworthiness for the judgment of truth, and through the senses he names 'bastard' denying its inerrancy in the discrimination of what is true. To quote his actual words: Of knowledge there are two forms, one legitimate, one bastard. To the bastard belong all this group: The other is legitimate and separate from that.
Then, preferring the legitimate to the bastard, he continues: When the bastard can no longer see any smaller, or hear, or smell, or taste, or perceive by touch, but finer matters have to be examined, then comes the legitimate, since it has a finer organ of perception. But we in actuality grasp nothing for certain, but what shifts in accordance with the condition of the body and of the things atoms which enter it and press upon it.
Democritus used to say that 'he prefers to discover a causality rather than become a king of Persia'. The ethics and politics of Democritus come to us mostly in the form of maxims. As such, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has gone as far as to say that: He says that "Equality is everywhere noble", but he is not encompassing enough to include women or slaves in this sentiment. Poverty in a democracy is better than prosperity under tyrants, for the same reason one is to prefer liberty over slavery.
Money when used with sense leads to generosity and charity, while money used in folly leads to a common expense for the whole society—excessive hoarding of money for one's children is avarice. While making money is not useless, he says, doing so as a result of wrongdoing is the "worst of all things".
Plato at the Googleplex. The Wisdom of Bertrand Russell. A Very Short Introduction. The Presocratics and Sophists. The Dream of Reason. Dr G E R Lloyd. Greek Philosophy - Simple Guides. The Cambridge Companion to the Stoics. The Routledge Guidebook to Plato's Republic. How To Read Plato. Isonomia and the Origins of Philosophy. The Cambridge Companion to Plato's Republic. The Cambridge Companion to Epicureanism. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Knowledge, Nature, and the Good. Parmenides and Presocratic Philosophy. Sophistical Rhetoric in Classical Greece.
Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Ethics.
How To Read Ancient Philosophy. Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Politeia in Greek and Roman Philosophy. The Cambridge Companion to Plato.
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The Ancient Commentators on Plato and Aristotle. Aristotle in Plain and Simple English.