The E was replaced by the front-engine Porsche for the model year. For the model year, Porsche introduced the Carrera 3. It was available in all markets except North America. The crankcase and gearbox housing were made of aluminium rather than magnesium for improved reliability. The new engine, which featured bigger intake and exhaust valves, produced greater torque allowing the Carrera 3. The Carrera 3. Production totals were 3, manual cars and 58 Sportomatics. For the model year, Porsche introduced the first production turbocharged Although called the Turbo being its internal type number in Europe, it was marketed as the Turbo Carrera in North America.
They were initially fitted with a 3. Production of the first units qualified the for FIA Group 4 competition. With the racing version called the Porsche of participating at the 24 Hours of Le Mans and other races including battles with the BMW 3. Private teams went on to win many races, like Le Mans in , and continued to compete successfully with the car well into the s until the FIA and IMSA rules were changed. For the model year, Porsche revised the with a larger 3. To fit the intercooler a newly designed "tea-tray" tail spoiler replaced the earlier whale tail spoiler. Porsche dropped the "Carrera" nomenclature for the North American markets and the car was simply called the Porsche Turbo worldwide.
The larger engine helped reduce some of the turbo lag inherent in the earlier version. In , a 5-speed manual transmission became available for the The was replaced in with the turbo featuring the same 3. There have been turbocharged variants of each subsequent generation of since then.
In , Porsche introduced the new version of the , called the 'SC'. Porsche reintroduced the SC designation for the first time since the SC as distinguished from the race engined Carrera. There was no Carrera version of the SC. The "SC" stands for "Super Carrera". It featured a 3. The move to an aluminum engine was to regain case reliability, something missing for many years with magnesium. In a Cabriolet concept car was introduced at the Frankfurt Motor Show. The convertible body design also featured four-wheel drive , although this was dropped in the production version.
The first Cabriolet debuted in late , as a model. This was Porsche's first cabriolet since the of the mids. A total of 4, were sold in its introductory year, despite its premium price relative to the open-top targa. In , Porsche had made plans to replace the with their new company flagship. Sales of the remained so strong however, that Porsche revised its strategy and decided to inject new life into the editions.
The decision to keep the in the product line occurred one afternoon in the office of Dr. Helmuth Bott , the Porsche operating board member responsible for all engineering and development. I noticed a chart on the wall of Professor Bott's office. It depicted the ongoing development schedules for the three primary Porsche product lines: Two of them stretched far into the future, but the program stopped at the end of I remember rising from my chair, walking over to the chart, taking a black marker pen, and extending the program bar clean off the chart.
The Porsche , the company icon, had been saved, and I believe the company was saved with it. The replacement for the SC series came in as the 3. This was the last iteration in the original series, with all subsequent models featuring new body styling and new brake, electronic, and suspension technologies.
A new higher-displacement motor, a 3. In addition, higher domed pistons increased the compression ratio from 9. New inlet manifold and exhaust systems were fitted. The transmission was carried over from the SC series for the first three model years. In , the Carrera got a new five-speed gearbox sourced from Getrag , model number G50 with proven BorgWarner synchronizers. This slightly heavier version also featured a hydraulically operated clutch.
Factory times were more modest: The brake discs were increased in size to aid in more effective heat dissipation and improved oil-fed chain tensioners were fitted to the engine. To improve oil cooling, a finned cooler replaced the serpentine lines in the front passenger fender well. This was further improved in , with the addition of a thermostatically controlled fan. Driving refinement and motor reliability were improved with an upgrade of the fuel and ignition control components to an L-Jetronic with Bosch Motronics 2 DME Digital Motor Electronics system.
An improvement in fuel-efficiency was due to the DME providing a petrol cut-off on the overrun.
The Carrera is almost indistinguishable from the SC with the external clue being the front fog lights that were integrated into the front valance. Only cosmetic changes were made during the production of the Carrera, with a redesigned dash featuring larger air conditioning vents appearing in In , Porsche also introduced the M option. Officially called the Supersport in the UK, it was commonly known as the "Turbo-look". It was a style that resembled the Porsche Turbo with wide wheel arches and the distinctive "tea tray" tail.
It featured the stiffer turbo suspension and the superior turbo braking system as well as the wider turbo wheels. Sales of the Supersport were high for its first two years in the United States because the desirable was not available. The Carrera Club Sport CS option M , of which were produced from August to September , is a reduced weight version of the standard Carrera that, with engine and suspension modifications, was purpose built for club racing.
The CS had a blueprinted engine with hollow intake valves and a higher rev limit, deletion of: With the exception of CSs delivered to the UK, all are identifiable by the "CS Club Sport" decal on the left front fender and came in a variety of colors, some special ordered. CS's did not have the decal installed by the dealer; however, all CS's have a "SP" stamp on the crankcase and cylinder head. Although the CS was well received by the club racers, because it cost more than the stock , but had fewer comfort features. In , Porsche produced examples of the CE or Commemorative Edition Carrera in coupe, targa and cabriolet variants to mark the production of the ,th Distinguishing features include special diamond blue metallic paint with color-matched Fuchs wheels, front and rear spoilers, and interior carpets and leather.
These cars also featured Dr. Of the examples produced, only were imported to the US coupes, cabrios and 80 Targas , were sold in Germany, 50 went to the UK, and the remainder to other countries. For , Porsche produced the 25th Anniversary Special Edition model to mark the 25th year of production.
The Porsche brochure lists production of U. All had "silk grey" leather with black accent piping and silk grey velour carpeting. Included were body color Fuchs wheels in 6x16 front and 8x16 rear , stitched leather console with an outside temperature gauge and a CD or cassette holder, a limited slip differential, and a short shifting gear lever, as well as small bronze "25th Anniversary Special Edition" badges.
According to the manufacturer, around , of the cars from the model years to are still on the road today. The Speedster option M , a low-roof version of the Cabriolet which was evocative of the Porsche Speedster of the s, was produced in limited numbers 2, starting in January until July as both a narrow body car and a Turbo-look. The narrow version production was The Speedster started as a design under Helmuth Bott in but was not manufactured until six years later. It was a two-seat convertible that featured a low swept windshield.
Total production of the 3. In late , the underwent a major evolution with the introduction of the Type With technologies from the flagship model, this would be an important car for Porsche, since the world economy was undergoing recession and the company could not rely on its image alone. It was launched as the Carrera 4, the "4" indicating four-wheel-drive , demonstrating the company's commitment to engineering.
Drag coefficient was down to 0. A rear spoiler deployed at high speed, preserving the purity of design when the vehicle was at rest. The chassis was redesigned overall. Coil springs, ABS brakes and power steering made their debut. The rear-wheel-drive version, the Carrera 2, arrived a year later.
The incarnation of the Turbo returned in after an absence from the price lists. At first it used a refined version of the 3. In , Porsche introduced the ahead-of-its-time Tiptronic automatic transmission in the Carrera 2, featuring adaptive electronic management and full manual control. The was one of the first cars in the world offered with dual airbags standard from , the first being the Porsche Turbo from In , appeals from American customers resulted in Porsche developing the RS America of which were built.
In , the RS America returned with rear seats. A total of 84 RSA's were made in The interior was more basic than a standard as well; for example the interior door panels lacked the armrests and door pockets and had a simple pull strap for the opening mechanism. In Porsche introduced a Turbocharged version of the series. This car is sometimes mistakenly called this type number actually referred to a stillborn project that would have been a hi-tech turbocharged car in the vein of the For the through model years, Porsche produced the Turbo with the 's proven 3.
With the on the way, this car was produced through and remains rather rare. The was again revised for model year under the internal name Type This car was significant as it was the final incarnation of the air-cooled first introduced in Most enthusiasts and collectors consider the to be the best of the air-cooled series. The exterior featured all-new front and rear ends.
The revised bodywork was smoother, having a noticeably more aerodynamic front end somewhat reminiscent of the Styling was by Englishman Tony Hatter under the supervision of design chief Harm Lagaay and completed in Along with the revised bodywork, mechanically the also featured an all-new multilink rear suspension that improved the car's ride and handling. This rear suspension was largely derived from the stillborn Porsche 's rear multilink design, and served to rectify the problems with earlier models' tendency to oversteer if the throttle or brakes were applied mid-corner.
These modifications also reduced previous 's lift-off oversteer problems to a much more moderate degree.
The new suspension, along with chassis refinements, enabled the car to keep up dynamically with the competition. Engine capacity remained at 3. The was the first Porsche to debut variable-length intake runners with the "Varioram" system on models. This addressed the inherent compromise between high-rpm power production and low-rpm torque production, and was one of the first of its kind to be employed on production vehicles.
Meanwhile, a new four-wheel-drive system was introduced as an option in the form of the Carrera 4, the rear-wheel-drive versions simply being called Carrera or C2. A lightweight RS had a 3. Non-turbo models appeared that used the Turbo's wide bodyshell and some other components the Carrera 4S and later the Carrera S but not the large tack-on Turbo "hibachi" spoiler. The Targa open-topped model also made a return, this time with a large glass roof that slid under the rear window. The expensive air-cooled Targa had a limited release between and As an investment, the and C2S version has proven the most desirable apart from even rarer models such as the RS and Turbo S.
They command a hefty premium in today's market and the very best example wide body cars can be priced more than the higher mileage Turbos. A Turbocharged version of the was launched in and became the first standard production Porsche with twin turbochargers and the first Turbo to be equipped with permanent all-wheel-drive the homologated GT2 version based on the Turbo retained RWD. The similarity in specification and in performance levels inspired several comparison road tests with the Porsche The differences were striking - the had a much smaller engine, sequential turbocharging and a computer controlled all wheel drive system.
The turbo had parallel turbochargers, 3. There were basically two years of production model year and model years. The main difference was that the ECU in the model year could not be flashed for an upgrade, while the could. Additionally, the year had Porsche crested centre caps on the wheels, while the had turbo inscribed. Another difference is the motion sensor and map lights above the interior rear view mirror on the while the had no such devices. In , Porsche introduced a limited run of units of the Sport version of the turbo dubbed the turbo S.
Aside from an upgraded ECU mapping, a centre oil cooler behind the centre air intake at the front bumper was added. The Type introduced in represented two major changes for the venerable lineage: Changing to a water-cooled engine was controversial with Porsche traditionalists, who noted this as the end of the 'true' The styling shared its front end with Porsche's mid engined Boxster.
Pinky Lai's work on the exterior won international design awards between and The Carrera variant had a 0. The interior was criticized for its plainness and its lack of relationship to prior interiors, although this came largely from owners of older s. The Turbo, which was four-wheel-drive and twin-turbocharged , often made appearances in magazines' lists of the best cars on sale.
The Carrera and Carrera 4 underwent revisions for model year , receiving clear lens front and rear indicator lights which were first seen on the Turbo version two years earlier. This allowed the to be more distinguishable from the Boxster. A mildly revised front fascia was also introduced, though the basic architecture remained. Engine displacement was 3. The displacement was increased in to 3. The folding roof mechanism on the convertible variants required 19 seconds for operation.
It could also be raised manually by means of an electric switch. Starting from the models with water-cooled engines, all variants of the Carrera do not come with rear limited-slip differential , except the 40th Anniversary , GT2, GT3 and Turbo. The exception would be for MY where the limited-slip differential was available as option code Porsche released a road legal GT3 version of the series which was derived from the company's racing car used in the GT3 class racing.
Simply called GT3, the car featured lightweight materials including thinner windows and deletion of the rear seats. The GT3 was a lighter and more focused design with the emphasis on handling and performance, a concept that dates back to the Carrera RS. The suspension ride height was lowered and tuned for responsiveness over compliance and comfort. These revisions improved handling and steering. Of more significance was the engine used in the GT3. Instead of using a version of the water-cooled units found in other s, the naturally aspirated engine was derived from the Porsche GT1 '98 sports-prototype racing car and featured lightweight materials which enabled the engine to have higher rpm.
Later on toward the end of the life cycle, the Turbo S nameplate also returned with the debut of the cabriolet variant as well. The Turbo S was limited to 1, units worldwide. The styling was more individual than the previous generations of the Turbo. Along with the traditional wider rear wing, the Turbo had different front lights and bumpers when compared to the Carrera and Carrera 4.
The rear bumper had air vents reminiscent of those on the Porsche and there were large vents on the front bumper. The series was replaced with the in It retains the 's basic profile, with an even lower 0. In addition, the new headlights revert to the original bug-eye design, drifting from the teardrop scheme of the Its interior is also similarly revised, with strong links to the earlier interiors while at the same time looking fresh and modern.
The shares less than a third of its parts with the outgoing , but is still technically similar to it. Initially, two versions of the were introduced— the rear-wheel-drive Carrera and Carrera S. In late , Porsche announced the all-wheel-drive versions to the lineup. Carrera 4 models both Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S were announced as models. Both Carrera 4 models are wider than their rear-wheel-drive counterparts by 1. The lineup includes both 2- and 4-wheel-drive variants, named Carrera and Carrera 4 respectively.
The model year received a larger air intake in the front bumper, new headlights, new rear taillights, new clean-sheet design direct fuel injection engines, and the introduction of a dual-clutch gearbox called PDK. The change to the 7th generation took place in the middle of the model year A Porsche can either be a or a , depending on the month of the production.
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The Turbocharged version of the series featured the same 3. It has VTG variable turbine geometry , that combines the low-rev boost and quick responses of a small turbocharger with the high-rev power of a larger turbocharger. It also offers higher fuel efficiency compared to the Turbo. The Turbo features a new all-wheel-drive system, similar to the one found on the Porsche Cayenne. The new PTM Porsche Traction Management system incorporates a clutch-based system which varies the amount of torque to the wheels to avoid tire slippage.
According to Porsche, redirecting torque to control oversteer or understeer results in neutral handling as well as greatly improved performance in all weather conditions. For the face lifted model year Turbo, known internally as the The new Turbo introduces paddle shifters for the PDK double-clutch gearbox. The previous water-cooled turbos and measured cc.
This new engine measures cc 3. The variable-vane twin turbochargers have also been reworked to increase responsiveness, and the intercooler and fuel system have been uprated.
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The traditional rear wing is a variation of the bi-plane unit. A new Turbo S was set for production in The GT3 was added to the lineage on 23 February It was at that time crowned "the best handling car in America" by Motor Trend. The drivetrain of the RS is based on the GT3, except for the addition of a lightweight flywheel and closer gear ratios for further improved response under acceleration. Unlike the GT3, the RS is built on the body and chassis of the Carrera 4 and Turbo, and accordingly has a wider rear track for better cornering characteristics on the track.
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Visually, the RS is distinguished by its distinctive colour scheme — bright orange or green with black accents, which traces its roots to the iconic Carrera RS of The plastic rear deck lid is topped by a wide carbon-fibre rear wing. The front airdam has been fitted with an aero splitter to improve front downforce and provide more cooling air through the radiator.
The European version of the RS is fitted with lightweight plexiglass rear windows and a factory-installed roll cage. Production of the first generation GT3 RS ended in An estimated units were delivered to the US and the worldwide production run is estimated to be under 2, vehicles. Other characteristics include low centre of gravity, large rear wing and an aerodynamically optimised body. The lateral front air deflection vanes, a first on a production Porsche, increase downforce on the front axle.
The GT3 RS 4. The new car was announced on 16 July of that year, but was launched during the 62nd Frankfurt Motor Show , held every other year in Frankfurt , Germany. It arrived in dealerships from November The GT2 has a twin-turbocharged 3. It has a 6-speed manual transmission and is rear wheel drive.
Its appearance differs slightly from its sister-car, the Turbo, in a few ways. It does not have fog lights in the front bumper, it has a revised front lip, it has a different rear wing with two small air scoops on either side , and it has a different rear bumper now featuring titanium exhaust pipes.
The GT2 is also different from the Turbo in that it is rear-wheel-drive rather than all-wheel-drive. In , Porsche added a new Speedster in a limited series of only units to the lineage, the number of cars produced recalling the iconic car of the s. It was the third Speedster produced, the other two being from the and generations. Only two colours were offered, Pure Blue which was developed specifically for the Speedster and Carrara White. Paint To Sample versions were produced in very limited numbers and upon special request from "loyal customers".
The Speedster featured a windscreen 70mm shorter than the standard cabriolet while maintaining the same rake angle. The introduced in is an entirely new platform, only the third since the original Porsche revealed basic information on the new Carrera and Carrera S models on 23 August The Carrera S features a 3. Often, an unused and unpublished phone number will be issued to the line so that it will work properly. With regard to mobile phones, the rules require carriers to connect calls from any mobile phone, regardless of whether that phone is currently active.
When a cellular phone is deactivated, the phone number is often recycled to a new user, or to a new phone for the same user.
The deactivated cell phone will still complete a call if it has battery power but the dispatcher will see a specialized number indicating the cell phone has been deactivated. It is usually represented with an area code of -xxx-xxxx. Also because the cell phone is no longer activated, the dispatcher is often unable to get Phase II information.
About 70 percent of calls came from cell phones in ,  and finding out where the calls came from required triangulation. A USA Today study showed that where information was compiled on the subject, many of the calls from cell phones did not include information allowing the caller to be located. Chances of getting as close as feet were higher in areas with more towers. But if a call was made from a large building, even that would not be enough to precisely locate the caller.
New federal rules, which service providers helped with, require location information for 40 percent of calls by and 80 percent by As recently as April 21, , an unidentified caller dialing to report the death of the musical artist Prince still needed to provide the dispatcher with the physical address of the building in which the musician had died because the dispatcher had no other means to determine the location of the caller's cell phone.
The caller was asked to locate a piece of mail with the building's address so that emergency responders could be sent. As of , 80 percent of calls in the United states were made on cell phones, but the ability to do so by text messaging was not required. Text-to was first used in Iowa in According to the FCC, only of about call centers had the ability, up from in If is dialed from a commercial Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP service, depending on how the provider handles such calls, the call may not go anywhere at all, or it may go to a non-emergency number at the public safety answering point associated with the billing or service address of the caller.
It may never be possible to reliably and accurately identify the location of a VoIP user, even if a GPS receiver is installed in the VoIP adapter, since such phones are normally used indoors, and thus may be unable to get a signal. In March , commercial Internet telephony provider Vonage was sued by the Texas Attorney General , who alleged that their website and other sales and service documentation did not make clear enough that Vonage's provision of service was not done in the traditional manner.
In May , the FCC issued an order requiring VoIP providers to offer service to all their subscribers within days of the order being published. In May , most VoIP users who dial are connected to a call center owned by their telephone company, or contracted by them. The operators are most often not trained emergency service providers, and are only there to do their best to connect the caller to the appropriate emergency service.
If the call center is able to determine the location of the emergency they try to transfer the caller to the appropriate PSAP. Most often the caller ends up being directed to a PSAP in the general area of the emergency. VoIP services operating in Canada are required to provide emergency service.
Federal Bureau of Investigation has warned of an increase in deliberate false alarms in which a false origin is displayed on calls to emergency services to send SWAT teams or heavily armed police to unsuspecting citizens' doorsteps. When a caller dials , the call is routed to the local public safety answering point.
However, if the caller is reporting an emergency in another jurisdiction, the dispatchers may or may not know how to contact the proper authorities. The publicly posted phone numbers for most police departments in the U. In the age of both commercial and personal high speed Internet communications, this issue is becoming an increasing problem. PSAPs can query this database to obtain emergency contact information of a PSAP in another county or state when it receives a call involving another jurisdiction. Online access to this database is provided at no charge for authorized local and state authorities.
In the area code , including Raleigh, North Carolina and surrounding communities, a second area code was added using an overlay plan in Starting in March , people making calls from the area code had to dial the entire number including area code even for local calls, and many people started with , realized their mistake, and disconnected. Three months after the change, police in Wake County were responding to six times as many "hang-ups", all of which required a response. This response could be a call-back from the dispatcher slowing down the ability to respond to actual emergencies , or if that did not get a result, a visit from the police.
A supervisor recommended that people remain on the line and explain the mistake.
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PBX systems requiring a "9" to reach an outside line and a "1" used to indicate an area code can be a problem. If the telephone buttons do not take input correctly or the caller accidentally presses a button multiple times, the caller might misdial rather than If so, the first 9 connects to the outside network, and then a call is placed. News programs and such shows as Rescue have broadcast actual calls to centers. Ohio Senator Tom Patton introduced a bill in which would have banned the broadcasting of calls, requiring the use of transcripts instead.
Patton believed that people would be reluctant to make calls because of possible retaliation or threats against those who called. He intended to seek proof of this idea to satisfy those who did not believe him, or that broadcasting calls hurt investigations. The Ohio Fraternal Order of Police supported the bill because broadcasts of calls have been " sensationalized ". A bill signed by Alabama governor Bob Riley on April 27, , requires a court order before recordings can be made public. Alaska , Florida , Kentucky , and Wisconsin also had bills banning the broadcasts. In April , the Tennessee Senate passed a bill banning broadcasts of calls unless the caller gave permission.
North Carolina law defines recordings as public records, but an exception allows officials to release either transcripts or distorted voices. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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